Article – Evergrande Collapse

Eduardo Vieira

Financial Markets

André Silva

Financial Markets

Raquel Silva

Financial Markets

 Gonçalo Eira

Financial Markets

Evergrande Group was founded in 1996 by Xu Jiayin, a businessman from Hunan province in China. The company started as a small property developer in Guangzhou, but it quickly grew into one of China’s largest real estate developers.

In the early 2000s, Evergrande began expanding aggressively, acquiring other developers, and embarking on large-scale projects across China. The company also diversified into other industries, including healthcare and electric vehicles, which has further stretched its resources.

By 2016, Evergrande had become one of the largest property developers in China, with revenues of more than $60 billion. The company was known for its high-profile projects, including a massive real estate development in Hainan province called the “Evergrande Island.”

However, Evergrande’s growth came at a cost. The company borrowed heavily to finance its expansion, taking on more debt than it could comfortably manage. In addition, the Chinese government began cracking down on the real estate sector in the mid-2010s, imposing restrictions on home sales and financing.

As a result, Evergrande began experiencing financial difficulties in 2020, with its debt levels becoming increasingly serious and unsustainable in recent months, raising concerns about the potential impact on the Chinese and global economies. The company tried to raise more capital by selling off assets, but these efforts were not enough to stave off its mounting debt obligations.

The situation came to a head in late 2021, when Evergrande began defaulting on some of its loans and faced protests from its investors and homebuyers, including sit-ins at Evergrande’s offices and other locations. The Chinese government has been working to contain the fallout from Evergrande’s financial troubles, encouraging banks and other lenders to extend credit to the company, and it has also been pressuring Evergrande to sell off assets and reduce its debt. However, there are concerns that the government’s efforts may not be enough to prevent a full-blown crisis.

As of early 2023, Evergrande is still facing significant challenges in meeting its debt obligations, which amount to more than $300 billion, leading to several loan defaults. Moreover, protests persist due to investors’ property owners’ concerns about the potential loss of their investments and assets.

The Chinese government has intervened to try to stabilize the situation, but the exact outcome remains unclear. If Evergrande were to collapse, it could have significant implications for the Chinese and global economies.

Since Evergrande is one of the largest real estate developers in China, its financial troubles regarding default on its debt obligations have raised concerns in investors’ which could lead to their investments withdrawal and that could trigger a broader crisis in the Chinese financial sector leading to the Chinese financial instability. Being a major contributor to China’s GDP, its collapse could lead to a slowdown in economic growth, particularly in the real estate and construction sectors. Also, Evergrande is one of the largest employers in China, and its collapse could lead to significant job losses across the country. This could have a ripple effect on other industries, leading to a broader economic downturn. On top of this, the company has extensive links to other firms and financial institutions in China and around the world. If Evergrande were to default on its debt obligations, it could trigger a broader contagion effect, spreading financial instability to other companies and markets.


In trying to solve these issues, the Chinese government has been working to contain the fallout from Evergrande’s financial troubles, but its interventions could have unintended consequences. For example, if the government were to bail out Evergrande, it could create a moral hazard, encouraging other companies to take on excessive debt without fear of consequences.

Furthermore, Evergrande caused and will continue to cause impacts all around the globe. The company’s financial troubles have already caused some volatility in global financial markets, with investors selling off stocks and bonds in response to the company’s default risks. If the situation were to worsen, it could lead to further market volatility, particularly in the real estate and financial sectors. As said before, the contagion risk applies to the rest of the world, particularly to Asia. The economic slowdown will reduce trade flow with other countries, and since China is a major consumer of commodities such as steel, copper, and iron ore, this could lead to reduced demand for these commodities globally, affecting namely Australia, Brazil, and Chile as well. To prevent future companies’ fallout, the market is expecting regulatory scrutiny of the real estate and financial sectors globally, leading to tighter regulations and increased compliance costs for companies operating in these sectors.

The situation is complex and fluid, and it is difficult to predict exactly what will happen next. Some analysts believe that Evergrande may be able to avoid a complete collapse if it is able to sell off assets and restructure its debt. Others are more pessimistic and believe that the company’s financial problems are too severe to be resolved without a major impact on the Chinese and global economies.

On March 20th, Evergrande was set to explain its debt restructuring plan in detail. It proposed restructuring options for creditors to swap their debt into new bonds and equity-linked instruments backed by the company and its two Hong Kong-listed subsidiaries, Evergrande Property Services Group and Evergrande New Energy Vehicle Group. The restructuring could provide relief for the developer, which faced collapse last year. However, analysts do not expect Evergrande’s balance sheet to recover fully anytime soon. Court and arbitration cases over 363.5 billion yuan ($52.83 billion) of debt are ongoing in mainland China and are not expected to materially affect the offshore restructuring. The developer expects to agree to restructure agreements with different groups of bondholders by March 31, with restructuring taking effect on October 1.

Overall, Evergrande’s financial troubles and potential collapse have significant implications for China and the rest of the world. The company’s high levels of debt, combined with the Chinese government’s crackdown on the real estate sector and restrictions on home sales and financing, have created a precarious situation. The potential loss of investor trust and the ripple effects on other industries and financial institutions could lead to a broader economic downturn, both in China and globally. The situation highlights the importance of effective regulatory oversight and the need for companies to manage their debt levels and financial risks responsibly. 

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